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Original Hegel text:
¶446. The simple substance of spirit divides itself as consciousness. Or, just as the consciousness of abstract Being, of sensory Being, passes over into perception, so too does the immediate certainty of real ethical Being; and just as for sense- perception simple Being becomes a thing of many properties, so for ethical percep- tion the case of action is an actuality with many ethical relations. For the former, however, the useless multiplicity of properties concentrates itself into the essential opposition of singularity and universality; and still more for ethical perception, which is the purified substantial consciousness, the multiplicity of ethical moments becomes the duality of a law of singularity and a law of universality. But each of these masses of substance remains spirit in its entirety; if in sense-perception things have no other substance than the two determinations of singularity and universality, here these determinations express only the superficial opposition of the two sides towards each other.
¶447. In the essence we are considering here, singularity has the significance of self- consciousness in general, not of a singular contingent consciousness. In this deter- mination, therefore, the ethical substance is actual substance, the absolute spirit realized in the multiplicity of consciousness that is-there; this spirit is the essence of the commonwealth which, when we entered the practical configuration of reason in general, was for us the absolute essence, and here has emerged for itself in its truth as conscious ethical essence, and as the essence for the consciousness which is here our object. The commonwealth is spirit which is for itself in that it maintains itself in the counterglow of individuals,—and it is in itself or substance, in that it maintains them within itself. As the actual substance it is a people, and as actual consciousness a citizen of that people. This consciousness has its essence in the simple spirit, and the certainty of itself in the actuality of this spirit, in the people as a whole, and immediately therein it has its truth, thus not in something that is not actual, but in a spirit that exists and prevails.
¶448. This spirit can be called the human law, because it is essentially in the form of actuality conscious of itself. In the form of universality it is the well-known law, and the prevailing custom; in the form of singularity it is the actual certainty of itself in the individual in general, and the certainty of itself as simple individuality is that spirit as government; its truth is its manifest validity, exposed to the light of day; an existence which for immediate certainty assumes the form of Being-there set free.
¶449. Confronting this ethical power and manifestability there is, however, another power, the divine law. For the ethical State-power, as the movement of conscious doing, has its opposite in the simple and immediate essence of the ethical order; as actual universality State-power is a counterweight to individual Being-for-itself; and as actuality in general it still has in the inner essence something other than what it is itself.
¶450. It has already been mentioned that each of the opposite ways in which the ethical substance exists contains the entire substance, and all the moments of its content. If, then, the commonwealth is substance as actual doing conscious of itself, the other side has the form of immediate substance or substance that simply is. The latter is thus on the one hand the inner concept or the universal possibility of the ethical order in general, but on the other hand equally has within it the moment of self-consciousness. This moment, expressing the ethical order in this element of immediacy or of Being, or an immediate consciousness of itself, both as essence and as this Self in an other, i.e. as a natural ethical commonwealth,—this is the family. The family, as the unconscious, still inner concept, stands opposed to its self- conscious actuality; as the element of the people’s actuality, it stands opposed to the people itself; as immediate ethical Being, it stands over against the ethical order that forms and maintains itself by labour for the universal;—the Penates stand opposed to the universal spirit.